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Old 19th September 2008 , 08:40 PM
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Default Music Theory 101

They say music is a language and, if we want to speak it well, then we need to understand what itís made up of.

Following on from an idea which occurred to me during our discussion on the thread Who's actually studied music, I think it would be a good idea to have a thread where new arrivals to music production could find the basics regarding music theory and notation. For the experienced, it may also serve as a means to revise what we all ready know.

These posts try to be as complete as possible while maintaining simplicity. Anything you notice that I have forgotten to mention or havenít given enough detail to can be further expanded. Your input will be much appreciated. If there is anything that needs further clarification, we can also discuss it.

There are lots of images but unfortunately for that reason I have had to put the hyperlink rather than the image.

Music Theory 101 Part 1 Music Notation

Music is made up of sounds and silences.

Sounds can have many characteristics but we initially think of duration or how long the sound lasts and pitch or how high or low the sound is in frequency. Sounds also have a level of strength or dynamics but letís leave that until later.

Duration is how long the sound or silence lasts. Throughout history there have been many ways to notate this but now we have settled on a system of symbols as follows:

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...ote_values.gif

This system relates the durations to one another. Thus a crotchet (or quarter note in the American system) is half as long as a minim (a half note) and is twice the length of a quaver (an eighth note).

Written notes can have three parts Ė a note head, a stem and a tail or flag. Two or more notes with flags can be combined to make them visually easier to read and in this case the flags are replaces with a beam.

Image:Parts of a note.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Notes can be made longer by joining or tying them together using a tie or by adding on half of their value using a dot which is place after the note.

Image:Tie music.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Imageotted notes3.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Music is divided into bars which are repeated quantities of beats. A tune may have a regular number of beats such as 2, 3, or 4. This differentiates a ď4 to the 4Ē disco beat from a waltz, for example. Additionally, bars may contain 5 or 7 beats and these can be seen as combinations of 2, 3, or 4 and may be termed irregular.

Bars of music are divided up by bar lines. There are also double bar lines to mark the end of a tune and repeat signs which tell you to repeat the tune or the section between two repeat signs.

Image:Barlines.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A time signature is a symbol used to tell us how many beats are in each bar. It consists of two numbers one on top of the other. The upper number tells us how many beats are in each bar while the lower number tells us what value or duration each beat has.

There are simple time signatures such as 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 where there are 2, 3 and 4 beats per bar respectively.

Image:3 quarter time.gif - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image:Common time signatures.gif - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Also the beats in a bar may be subdivided to give whatís called compound time where each beat has three subdivisions.

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...ges/meter2.gif


Rhythm is the combination of long and short sounds to make patterns.

Pitch differentiates high sounds or notes from low notes. Think of the difference between a male voice and a female voice singing the same melody. The male voices is lower in pitch than the female (normally Ė unless we consider the Bee Gees or a castrati and thatís too painful!). There are various systems for labelling pitch and in Western music we use the alphabet letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G or solfa syllables doh, re, mi, fah, soh, lah, ti.

The stave or staff is used to represent pitch. This consists of five parallel lines and the spaces between them. Notes are places on the lines or between the lines. We count the lines and spaces from the bottom up. Thus the lowest line is the first and the highest line is the fifth. Moving up through the lines and spaces implies an increase in pitch.

Image:Staff240.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

When we write notes on the stave, we want them to look nice and fit on the stave. Therefore we focus on the middle line. If the note head goes below the middle line, then the stem of the note goes upwards and on the right of the note head. If the note head goes above the middle line, the stem goes downwards and on the left. If itís on the middle line then you can choose up or down but this is usually dictated by the direction of the notes before and after.

Image:Music notation.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

We use ledger lines if we want to extend the pitches above or below the stave.

Image:Ledger lines.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


We use a clef to fix the pitch of the notes on the lines and in the spaces. There are various clefs in use but the most common are the Treble or G Clef and the Bass or F Clef. The former locates the second line as the pitch of G and the latter locates the note of F on the fourth line. A typical use of both these clefs is seen in piano music where the right hand plays the higher notes on the treble clef and the left hand lays the lower notes on the bass clef.

The treble clef:
Image:GClef.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The bass clef:
Image:FClef.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

If we fix one note on the stave, then working backwards and forwards we can identify all the notes on each stave as well as above and below it.

Image:Treble clef with note.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...ble-labled.GIF

Image:Bass clef with note.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...ass-labled.GIF

We can now combine pitch and duration and produce a melody or tune.

Image:Pop Goes the Weasel melody.PNG - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old 19th September 2008 , 08:42 PM
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Default Music Theory 101

Music Theory 101 Part 2 Scales and Key Signatures

We have previously considered basic notation of a melody. Thatís all very well but our melodies need to conform to some scale. A key or scale is a set of notes that sound well together and can be accompanied by chords (more on those later). It is a division of the distance between a given note e.g. E on the first line of the stave and then next highest note of the same name e.g. E in the fourth space on the stave. This is called an octave because it includes eight notes E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E.

There are many ways to divide the distance between these two notes. Some cultures use five divisions, others seven and there are even twelve divisions in whatís called the chromatic scale.

But we usually use whatís called a diatonic scale which has seven steps corresponding to doh, re, mi, fah, soh, lah, ti. Usually the upper note is repeated so if we start on A then we would use the letters A, B, C, E, F, G, Aí (high A). These scales can be called major or minor depending on the arrangement of the distances between the notes.

A scale has a pattern of distances between the notes. These distances are called intervals (see later). The intervals used in building a scale are called semitones and tones. A semitone is the smallest distance between two notes on a piano, or two frets on a guitar, e.g. E-F on the piano or open 6th string to 1st finger on the 6th string on the guitar. A tone is the distance of two steps, e.g. C-D which involves the notes C-C#-D and it corresponds to the distance between two white notes on the piano which have a black note between them or between two frets on the guitar.

Image:Cadence minor second.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...p_keyboard.gif

http://www.alloutguitar.com/files/ex...hell_frets.jpg

The pattern for a major scale (one of the most popular in modern music) is

Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone

This can be seen in the scale of C major which is the only scale on the piano which uses all white keys.

http://www.yokewong.net/fingering.GIF

Image:C major scale.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thatís all very well but suppose you canít sing in the key of C or you want to use a different scale for whatever reason?

We can construct a scale starting on any note by just following the pattern of tones and semitones. But in order to preserve the pattern we need to alter some notes along the way. We do this by raising or lowering them. By making them sharp or flat. And there are symbols to tell us to do this. Notes can be made sharp or double sharp and flat or double flat when they are raised or lowered by a semitone or a tone respectively.

Sharp and double sharp:
Image:C sharp.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flat and double flat:
Image:A flat.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

So starting on the note of G major means we have to raise the F to F sharp (F#). In the scale of F major we have to lower the B to B flat (Bb).

Here are the major scales.

C: C,D,E,F,G,A,B,C
G: G,A,B,C,D,E,F#,G
D: D,E,F#,G,A,B,C#,D
A: A,B,C#,D,E,F#,G#,A
E: E,F#,G#,A,B,C#,D#,E
B: B,C#,D#,E,F#,G#,A#,B
Gb/F#: Gb,Ab,Bb,Cb,Db,Eb,F,Gb or F#,G#,A#,B#,C#,D#,E#,F
Db/C#: Db,Eb,F,Gb,Ab,Bb,C,D or C#,D#,E,F#,G#,A#,B#,C
Ab: Ab,Bb,C,Db,Eb,F,G,A
Eb: Eb,F,G,Ab,Bb,C,D,E
Bb: Bb,C,D,Eb,F,G,A,B
F: F,G,A,Bb,C,D,E,F

Now we can even transpose a tune from one key or scale to the next. By simply writing out the notes of one key under that of another we can substitute the notes in the old key for the new one. For example, if I want to transpose a melody from C major to E major, I can write out the following

C D E F G A B
E F# G# A B C# D#

Now ever C becomes an E, every D an F# etc.

Key signatures are placed at the beginning of a tune to tell us in which key we are going to play. From the above we have seen the following

Scale No. of sharps
C None
G 1 (F#)
D 2 (F#, C#)
A 3 (F#, C#, G#)
E 4 (F#, C#, G#, D#)
B 5 (F#, C#, G#, D#, A#)
Gb 6 (Bb, Eb, AbDb, Gb, Cb)
Db 5 (Bb, Eb, AbDb, Gb)
Ab 4 (Bb, Eb, Ab, Db)
Eb 3 (Bb, Eb, Ab)
Bb 2 (Bb, Eb)
F 1 (Bb)



C major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg
G major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

D major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

A major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

E major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

B major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

F#/Gb major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

C#/Db major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

Ab major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

Eb major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

Bb major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

F major http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdiction...or%20Scale.jpg

The progression of scales is often represented in the circle of fifths where each new scale begins on the note of the fifth note of the preceding one, e.g. C to G to D to A etc.

Image:Circle-of-fifths.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

These sharps and flats are placed in the key signature at the beginning of a tune in a determined order on the stave to indicate the key.

C major Imageo Mayor armadura.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

G major Image:G Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

D major Image Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A major Image:A Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

E major Image:B Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
B major Image:F-sharp Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

F#/Gb major Image:F-sharp Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image:G-flat Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

C#/Db major Image:C-sharp Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Image-flat Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ab major Image:A-flat Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eb major Image:E-flat Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bb major Image:B-flat Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

F major Image:F Major key signature.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


To identify the key from the key signature you can memorise the number of sharps or flats, or with time become familiar with them.

However, if youíre starting out, then in a sharp key signature take the last sharp e.g. D# and step up one semitone to E and thatís the key. If itís C#, step up one semitone to D and the key is D major.

If you are dealing with flat key signatures then simply take the second last flat and that is your key, e.g. if there are 3 flats in the key signature, then the second last one is Eb and the key is Eb major.

Minor scales come in three varieties.

The natural minor has the structure Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, e.g. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A.

The harmonic minor has the structure Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tritone, Semitone, e.g. A, B, C, D, E, F, G#, A. A tritone is a distance of three semitones.

The melodic minor has the structure Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, e.g. A, B, C, D, E, F#, G#, A. This scale is different descending Ė the F# and G# become natural so it is effectively the natural minor scale descending.

http://cnx.org/content/m10856/latest/minor3.png

Minor scales are said to be related to majors. Basically to find the relative minor of a major scale just go to the sixth note of the major and that is the starting note of the minor.

Some relative major and minor scales:
http://www.playpiano.com/101-tips/Sc...s/image002.jpg

Here we see the full list of relative major and minors represented in the circle of fifths:
Image:Cycleoffifths.gif - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Each degree or note of the scale is given a name. Here we see it in the key of C major.

Degree Note name Scale Degree name
1st C Tonic
2nd D Supertonic
3rd E Mediant
4th F Subominant
5th G Dominant
6th A Submediant
7th B Leading note

After the tonic, the dominant is the next most important. The leading note wants to pull to the upper tonic. In the natural minor scale the leading notes is called the subtonic as it is a tone rather than a semitone. The degrees of the scale can also be labelled using Roman numerals: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII.

Another type of scale is the chromatic scale. This includes all twelve divisions of the octave, i.e. all semitones or all black and white keys on the piano or frets on the guitar between a low C and a high C, for example.

Image:Chromatic scale full octave ascending and descending on C.PNG - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There are several scales which only use five notes and are hence named pentatonic. The major pentatonic scale has just five notes per octave. If we think of starting on C then the notes are C, D, E, G, A, C.

Image:C major pentatonic scale.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The minor pentatonic is essentially the same but it starts on a different note, e.g. A, C, D, E, G, A.

Image:A minor pentatonic scale.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old 19th September 2008 , 08:44 PM
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Default Music Theory 101

Music Theory 101 Part 3 Chords and Intervals

Before we talk about chords, which are the combination of notes, we need to consider intervals. An interval is the distance between two notes. We have already seen three types of intervals Ė semitone, tone and tritone. An interval is measured firstly by the number of lettered notes involved, e.g. C-D has two letters so the interval is a second, C-E has three notes (C, D and E) so it is a third.

Image:Interval numbers.gif - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In a major scale, the intervals can be minor, major or perfect.

C-C Unison
C-D Major 2nd
C-E Major 3rd
C-F Perfect 4th
C-G Perfect 5th
C-A Major 6th
C-B Major 7th
C-C Perfect octave (8va)


As we know notes can be raised and lowered so we need to qualify more the actual distance between the notes, e.g. C-G, C-Gb and C-G# are all intervals of a fifth but there is clearly a difference between them. Making a major interval a semitone smaller, it becomes minor and vice versa a minor made one step bigger becomes a major. A perfect interval becomes diminished if made smaller and augmented if made bigger. Referring back to chromatic scales we can construct the full list of chromatic intervals.

Interval Notes
Unison C-C
Augmented unison C-C#
Minor 2nd C-Db
Major 2nd C-D
Minor 3rd C-Eb
Major 3rd C-E
Diminished 4th C-Fb
Perfect 4th C-F
Augmented 4th C-F#
Diminished 5th C-Gb
Perfect 5th C-G
Augmented 5th C-G#
Minor 6th C-Ab
Major 6th C-A
Minor 7th C-Bb
Major 7th C-B
Diminished 8va C-Cb
Perfect 8va C-C


While an interval is the combination of two notes, a chord is the combination of three or more notes. Basically we stack notes on top of each other Ė usually those that sound well together but also those that clash or provide dissonance.

The root is the foundation note of a chord and gives it its name, e.g. C. The most basic chord involves three notes, is called a triad, and is formed by putting the third and the fifth notes of the scale above the root, e.g. C-E-G.

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...ges/triad1.gif

The C major triad in root position (with the root of the chord in the bass)
http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...ges/triad5.gif

http://www.musictheory.halifax.ns.ca...17_c_triad.GIF

And on the guitar:
Image:Cmajorguitar.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

We can build a chord on each degree of the major scale as follows.

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...es/romnum1.gif


We can therefore identify the types of chords created on each scale degree as follows.

Degree Major scale
I Major (C = CEG)
II Minor (Dm = DFA)
III Minor (Em = EGB)
IV Major (F = FAC)
V Major (G = GBD)
VI Minor (Am = ACE)
VII Diminished (Bdim = BDF)

Degree Natural Minor scale
I Minor (Am = ACE)
II Diminished (Bdim = BDF)
III Major (C = CEG)
IV Minor (Dm = DFA)
V Minor (Em = EGB)
VI Major (F = FAC)
VII Major (G = GBD)

Degree Harmonic minor
I Minor (Am = ACE)
II Diminished (Bdim = BDF)
III Augmented (C = CEG#)
IV Minor (Dm = DFA)
V Major (Em = EG#B)
VI Major (F = FAC)
VII Diminished (G# = GBD)


So, if I am playing guitar accompaniment to a song in C major, for example, I can expect to meet chords such as C, F, G, Dm, Em, Am and to a lesser extent Bdim. Similarly I can say the same if I play in A minor Ė only the different chords will have a different focus or importance.

Chords can be inverted which means that the bottom note can be placed on the top. If we take a chord of CEG and rearrange it as EGCí (high C) then itís called a first inversion. We notice that the 3rd of the chord (E) is the lowest note or is in the bass. If we rearrange if with the G or 5th as the lowest note, it is called a second inversion.

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...ges/triad7.gif

http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/...ges/triad8.gif


We can make chords more interesting by adding another note to make four note chords. Adding the note which is a seventh above the root gives us the following chords: major 7th, minor 7th, diminished 7th, half-diminished 7th (or minor seventh flat five Ė e.g. Dm7b5), dominant 7th.

Major 7th: Add the major seventh above the root in a major chord, e.g. CEGB
Minor 7th: Add the minor seventh above the root in a minor chord, e.g. ACEG or CEbGBb
Diminished 7th: Add the diminished 7th above the root in a diminished chord, e.g. BDFAb or CEbGBbb (B double flat)
Half-diminished 7th: Add the minor seventh above the root in a diminished chord, e.g. DFAbCb or CEbGbBb
Dominant 7th: Add the minor seventh above the root in a major chord, e.g. GBDF or CEbGBb

Similar to the triads we looked at above, we can also produce a set of seventh chords for each degree of the scale. These can also be used in inversions.

[B]Degree [/B]Major scale
I Major 7th (Cmaj7 = CEGB)
II Minor 7th (Dm7 = DFAC)
III Minor 7th (Em7 = EGBD)
IV Major 7th (Fmaj7 = FACE)
V Dominant 7th (G7 = GBDF)
VI Minor 7th (Am7 = ACEG)
VII Half-diminished 7th (Bdim7 = BDFA)


Degree Natural Minor scale
I Minor 7th (Am7 = ACEG)
II Half-diminished 7th (Bdim7 = BDFA)
III Major 7th (Cmaj7 = CEGB)
IV Minor 7th (Dm7 = DFAC)
V Minor 7th (Em7 = EGBD)
VI Major 7th (Fmaj7 = FACE)
VII Dominant 7th (G7 = GBDF)


Degree Harmonic minor
I Minor major 7th (AmM7 = ACEG#)
II Half-diminished 7th (Bdim7 = BDFA)
III Augmented major 7th (Cmaj7(#5) = CEG#B)
IV Minor 7th (Dm = DFAC)
V Dominant 7th (Em = EG#BD)
VI Major 7th (F = FACE)
VII Diminished 7th (G#dim7 = G#BDF)

In addition to the seventh chords, there are also chords where the sixth above the root is added. These, naturally are called sixth chords. We can play major sixth chords and minor sixth chords, e.g. C6 = CEGA and Cm6 = CEbGA.

There are many other types of altered chords, i.e. chords with notes added but I think this is a bit out our league at the moment and can be left until later.

How the chords are arranged between the instruments or voices is called chord voicing. This means that the notes of a chord may be spread between instruments such as in a string quartet consisting of two violins, viola, and cello. Here, typically the bass instrument, the cello, could play the root of the chord, the first violin could play the root as part of the melody and the other two instruments could complete the chord with the 3rd and the 5th.

Similarly, in a rock group, the bass guitar might play the root, the singer might sing the root or one of the other notes and the guitar could fill in the missing notes (and not necessarily play the whole chord). Counter melodies or pad sounds could also double some of the notes to fill out the sound.

The voicing of the chord will depend on the capabilities of each instrument used in the ensemble as well as on the position (root, 1st, 2nd or 3rd inversion).
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Old 19th September 2008 , 09:20 PM
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Lovely introduction into music theory dude, must of taken you some time to research it all, didn't check out the all links but like the way you described certain things like intervals. not to sound patronizing but well done man
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Old 20th September 2008 , 12:33 PM
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Fabulous Shane!
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Old 20th September 2008 , 01:12 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sureno View Post
Lovely introduction into music theory dude, must of taken you some time to research it all, didn't check out the all links but like the way you described certain things like intervals. not to sound patronizing but well done man
Thanks Paul. Like I said it's something I had been working on for a bit. It's mostly off the top of my head. The images did take a bit of time to find though! I hope it's in a lingo that everyone can understand. If people want some more in depth discussion, I'm here to help.
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Old 20th September 2008 , 01:14 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by modz1 View Post
Fabulous Shane!
Thanks Modz1. I do hope it's useful and of course it can be added to as needed. It's by no means finished...so come on guys, give your imput too.
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Old 20th September 2008 , 04:31 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sphelan View Post
Thanks Modz1. I do hope it's useful and of course it can be added to as needed. It's by no means finished...so come on guys, give your imput too.
Hey!

Lovely work sphelan. As promised here is a link to the other Music Theory thread I started earlier which approaches things from an interactive angle and is probably best for those who prefer interactive online tutorials that are as slow paced or as quickly delivered as you want.

I think it's a good idea to link it here on this thread as some may prefer a different approach that presents the information they need infront of them (as your post does very well) so every little bit helps to provide even more choice for those looking for ways to learn Music theory.

The thread I started earlier discusses an interactive approach. Nice and slow paced for beginners. The entire website can be downloaded for offline viewing and covers the following areas...

Lessons

The Staff Clef and Ledger lines
Note duration
Measures and Time Signature
Rest Duration
Dots and Ties
Simple and Compound Meter
Odd Meter

Steps and Accidentals
The Major Scale
The Minor Scales
Scale Degrees
Key Signatures
Key Signature Calculation

Generic Intervals
Specific Intervals
Writing Intervals
Interval Inversion

Introduction to Chords
Triad Inversion
Diatonic Triads
Roman Numeral analysis
Voicing Chords
Analysis #1

Seventh Chords
Diatonic Seventh Chords
Seventh Chord Inversion

Composing with Minor Scales
Nonharmonic Tones
Phrases and Cadences
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Old 20th September 2008 , 04:48 PM
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I would also refer people to Music theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia which has a load of links for further information on what's discussed there.

The Associated Board books The AB Guide to Music Theory, Part I and Part 2 are what I have used in the past to teach music theory to students but I think that there is a lot of info that practising musicians of dance or rock/pop etc may not necessarily need to know. Here's the link anyway if you are interested The AB Guide to Music Theory, Part I - ABRSM Publishing: http://www.abrsmpublishing.com.
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Old 12th October 2008 , 06:03 PM
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Chords and their scales


Major chords

Major 7th (Cmaj7)
Major
Lydian (#11)
Major Pentatonic
Minor Pentatonic starting on 7th

Major 7th, b5 (Cmaj7b5)
Lydian
Minor Pentatonic on 7th

Major 7th, +5 (Cmaj7#5)
Lydian augmented
Augmented
3rd mode Harmonic minor

Major triad, sus4 (Csus4)
Major
Major Pentatonic

Minor chords

Minor 7th (Cm7)
Dorian
Aeolian
Minor Pentatonic
Minor Pentatonic on the 5th
Blues
Phrygian
4th mode Harmonic minor

Minor 6th or 6/9 (Cm6)
Dorian
Melodic Minor
Minor Pentatonic
Blues

Dominant Chords

Dominant 7th (C7)
Mixolydian
Blues
Major Pentatonic
Major Pentatonic on the 5th

Dominant 7th, b9 (C7b9)
Mixolydian with b2
Mixolydian with b2 b6
Half step- Whole step Diminished

Dominant 7th, b9/#9 and b5/#5 (C7#5#9) or (C7b5b9)
Altered

Half-Diminished Chords

Minor 7th, b5 (Cm7b5)

Locrian
Locrian, with #2
2nd mode Harmonic minor
Whole step-half step Diminished

Diminished Chords
Diminished 7th (Cdim)
Whole Step-Half Step Diminished
7th mode Harmonic Minor

Some scales to use when improvising/writing songs
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Old 24th June 2010 , 01:43 PM
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It is really amazing how to play music and understand its language.
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Old 14th September 2017 , 05:11 AM
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[QUOTE=musiclover2010;49002]It is really amazing how to play music and understand its language.[/QUOTE]

I know right?! There's so much to learn but when it all fits together it's amazing.
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